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Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with anticancer drugs that may be injected into a vein or taken by mouth. These drugs travel through the bloodstream and reach most parts of the body.
Chemo travels through the bloodstream and reach most parts of the body. It is typically part of the treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This is because SCLC has usually already spread by the time it is found , so treatments such as surgery alone or radiation therapy alone would not reach all areas of cancer.
Some patients in poor health might not be able to tolerate intense doses of chemo or a combination of drugs. But older age by itself is not a reason to avoid chemo.
Generally, SCLC is first treated with combinations of chemo drugs. The combinations used most often are:
If the SCLC worsens or comes back after treatment with the above combination of chemo drugs, other chemo drugs may then be given. These drugs are usually given by themselves:
Chemo drugs for lung cancer are typically given into a vein (intravenous [IV]), either as an injection over a few minutes or as an infusion over a longer period of time. This can be done in a doctor’s office, chemotherapy clinic, or in a hospital.
Often, slightly larger and sturdier IVs known as central venous catheters (CVCs), central venous access devices (CVADs), or central lines are needed to give chemo. They are used to put medicines, blood products, nutrients, or fluids right into your blood. They can also be used to take out blood for testing.
Many different kinds of CVCs are available. The 2 most common types are the port and the PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) line. A port is a small quarter-sized device that is placed under the skin in your upper chest. A small tube connects the port to a large vein that goes into the heart, called the superior vena cava. A PICC line is a small tube that is placed in the upper arm; that tube threads through the vein until it reaches the superior vena cava.
Doctors give chemo in cycles. Each cycle includes the period of treatment followed by a rest period to give you time to recover from the effects of the drugs. Cycles are most often 3 or 4 weeks long, and initial treatment is typically 4 to 6 cycles. The schedule varies depending on the drugs used. For example, some drugs are given only on the first day of the chemo cycle. Others are given for a few days in a row, or once a week. Then, at the end of the cycle, the chemo schedule repeats to start the next cycle.
For advanced cancers, the initial chemo combination is often given for 4 to 6 cycles, sometimes in combination with an immunotherapy drug. Beyond this, doctors might also recommend extending treatment with a single immunotherapy drug, for people who have had a good response to their initial chemotherapy or have had no worsening of their cancer.
If the cancer progresses (gets worse) during treatment or returns after treatment is finished, other chemo drugs may be tried. The choice of drugs depends to some extent on how soon the cancer begins to grow again. (The longer it takes for the cancer to return, the more likely it is to respond to further treatment.)
Chemo drugs can cause side effects. These depend on the type and dose of drugs given and how long they are taken. Some common side effects of chemo include:
Chemo can also affect the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow, which can lead to:
These side effects usually go away after treatment, but there are also often ways to lessen them. For example:
Some drugs can have specific side effects. For example:
Be sure to report any side effects you notice during chemo to your cancer care team so that they can be treated promptly. In some cases, the doses of the chemo drugs may need to be reduced or treatment may need to be delayed or stopped to prevent the effects from getting worse.
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
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Last Revised: November 22, 2023