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Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with anti-cancer drugs that may be injected into a vein or taken by mouth.
Chemotherapy travels through the bloodstream and reach most parts of the body. Not all people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will need chemo, but depending on the cancer’s stage and other factors, chemo may be recommended in different situations:
Chemo is often not recommended for patients in poor health, but advanced age by itself is not a barrier to getting chemo.
The chemo drugs most often used for NSCLC include:
Combinations of 2 chemo drugs are often used to treat early-stage lung cancer. If a combination is used, it often includes cisplatin or carboplatin plus one other drug.
Advanced lung cancer though may be treated with a single chemo drug especially for people who might not tolerate combination chemotherapy well, such as those in poor overall health or who are elderly.
For some people, a targeted therapy drug or an immunotherapy drug may be given alone or with chemotherapy. For more on this, see Treatment Choices for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, by Stage.
Chemo drugs for lung cancer are typically given into a vein (IV), either as an injection over a few minutes or as an infusion over a longer period of time. This can be done in a doctor’s office, chemotherapy clinic, or in a hospital setting.
Often, a slightly larger and sturdier IV is required in the vein system to administer chemo. They are known as central venous catheters (CVCs), central venous access devices (CVADs), or central lines. They are used to put medicines, blood products, nutrients, or fluids right into your blood. They can also be used to take out blood for testing.
Many different kinds of CVCs are available. The 2 most common types are the port and the PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) line. A port is a small quarter-sized device that is placed under the skin in your upper chest. A small tube connects the port to a large vein that goes into the heart, called the superior vena cava. A PICC line is a small tube that is placed in the upper arm; that tube threads through the vein until reaches the superior vena cava.
Doctors give chemo in cycles. Each cycle includes the period of treatment followed by a rest period to give you time to recover from the effects of the drugs. Cycles are most often 3 or 4 weeks long. The schedule varies depending on the drugs used. For example, with some drugs, the chemo is given only on the first day of the cycle. With others, it is given for a few days in a row, or once a week. Then, at the end of the cycle, the chemo schedule repeats to start the next cycle.
Adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemo is often given for 3 to 4 months, depending on the drugs used. The length of treatment for advanced lung cancer is based on how well it is working and what side effects you have.
For advanced cancers, the initial chemo combination is often given for 4 to 6 cycles. Some doctors now recommend giving treatment beyond this with a single chemo or targeted drug, in people who have had a good response to their initial chemotherapy or have had no worsening of their cancer. Continuing this treatment, known as maintenance therapy, seems to help keep the cancer in check and help some people live longer.
If the initial chemo treatment for advanced lung cancer is no longer working, the doctor may recommend second-line treatment with either chemo, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy or a clinical trial
Chemo drugs can cause side effects. These depend on the type and dose of drugs given and how long they are taken. Some common side effects include:
Chemo can also affect the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow, which can lead to:
These side effects usually go away after treatment is finished. There are often ways to lessen these side effects. For example, drugs can be given to help prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting.
Some drugs can have specific side effects. For example, drugs such as cisplatin, vinorelbine, docetaxel, or paclitaxel can cause nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy). This can sometimes lead to symptoms (mainly in the hands and feet), such as pain, burning or tingling sensations, sensitivity to cold, or weakness. In most people, this goes away or gets better once treatment is stopped, but it may last a long time in others.
Be sure to report any side effects you notice during chemo to your cancer care team so that they can be treated promptly. In some cases, the doses of the chemo drugs may need to be reduced or treatment may need to be delayed or stopped to prevent the side effects from getting worse.
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
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Last Revised: November 22, 2023