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A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease, such as breast cancer. But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you are sure to get the disease.
Some risk factors for breast cancer are things you cannot change, such as getting older or inheriting certain gene changes. These make your risk of breast cancer higher.
For information on other known and possible breast cancer risk factors, see:
This is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can get breast cancer, too, but this disease is much more common in women than in men.
As you get older, your risk of breast cancer goes up. Most breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older.
About 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary, meaning that they result directly from gene changes (mutations) passed on from a parent.
BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In normal cells, these genes help make proteins that repair damaged DNA. Mutated versions of these genes can lead to abnormal cell growth, which can lead to cancer.
Other genes: Other gene mutations can also lead to inherited breast cancers. These gene mutations are much less common, and most of them do not increase the risk of breast cancer as much as the BRCA genes.
Inherited mutations in several other genes have also been linked to breast cancer, but these account for only a small number of cases.
Genetic counseling and testing: Genetic testing can be done to look for inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (or less commonly in genes such as PTEN, TP53, or others mentioned above). This might be an option for some women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as for certain women with factors that put them at higher risk for breast cancer, such as a strong family history. While genetic testing can be helpful in some cases, not every woman needs to be tested, and the pros and cons need to be considered carefully. To learn more, see Genetic Counseling and Testing for Breast Cancer Risk.
It’s important to note that most women who get breast cancer do not have a family history of the disease. But women who have close blood relatives with breast cancer have a higher risk:
A woman with cancer in one breast has a higher risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. (This is different from a recurrence or return of the first cancer.) Although this risk is low overall, it's even higher for younger women with breast cancer.
Overall, White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African American women, although the gap between them has been closing in recent years. In women under age 40, breast cancer is more common in African American women. African American women are also more likely to die from breast cancer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.
Risk in different groups also varies by type of breast cancer. For example, African American women are more likely to have the less common triple-negative breast cancer.
Many studies have found that taller women have a higher risk of breast cancer than shorter women. The reasons for this aren’t exactly clear, but it may have something to do with factors that affect early growth, such as nutrition early in life, as well as hormonal or genetic factors.
Breasts are made up of fatty tissue, fibrous tissue, and glandular tissue. Breasts appear denser on a mammogram when they have more glandular and fibrous tissue and less fatty tissue. Women with dense breasts on mammogram have a higher risk of breast cancer than women with average breast density. Unfortunately, dense breast tissue can also make it harder to see cancers on mammograms.
A number of factors can affect breast density, such as age, menopausal status, the use of certain drugs (including menopausal hormone therapy), pregnancy, and genetics.
To learn more, see our information on breast density and mammograms.
Women diagnosed with certain types of benign (non-cancer) breast conditions may have a higher risk of breast cancer. Some of these conditions are more closely linked to breast cancer risk than others. Doctors often divide benign breast conditions into different groups, depending on how they affect this risk.
Non-proliferative lesions: These conditions don’t seem to affect breast cancer risk, or if they do, the increase in risk is very small. They include:
Mastitis (infection of the breast) is not a tumor and does not increase the risk of breast cancer.
Proliferative lesions without atypia (cell abnormalities): In these conditions there’s excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast, but the cells don't look very abnormal. These conditions seem to raise a woman’s risk of breast cancer slightly. They include:
Proliferative lesions with atypia: In these conditions, the cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue grow excessively, and some of them no longer look normal. These types of lesions include:
Breast cancer risk is about 4 to 5 times higher than normal in women with these changes. If a woman also has a family history of breast cancer and either hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia, she has an even higher risk of breast cancer.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they are not growing through the wall of the lobules. LCIS is not considered to be cancer, and it typically does not spread beyond the lobule (that is, it doesn't become invasive breast cancer) if it isn’t treated. But women with LCIS have a 7 to 12 times higher risk of developing breast cancer (which can be in either breast).
For more on these conditions, see Non-cancerous Breast Conditions.
Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (typically after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer (such as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This risk depends on their age when they got radiation. The risk is highest for women who had radiation as a teen or young adult, when the breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment in older women (after about age 40 to 45) does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.
From the 1940s through the early 1970s some pregnant women were given an estrogen-like drug called DES because it was thought to lower their chances of losing the baby (miscarriage). These women have a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women whose mothers took DES while they were pregnant with them may also have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.
To learn more, see our information about DES exposure.
The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2019-2020. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2019.
Ashford A. Chapter 16: Inherited genetic factors and breast cancer. In: Harris JR, Lippman, Morrow M, Osbourne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.
Chlebowski R. Factors that modify breast cancer risk in women. UpToDate. 2021. Accessed at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/factors-that-modify-breast-cancer-risk-in-women on July 16, 2021.
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National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ). 2021. Accessed at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq on August 9, 2021.
National Cancer Institute. Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ). 2021. Accessed at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-ovarian-genetics-pdq on August 9, 2021.
National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Female Breast Cancer. Accessed at http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html on August 9, 2021.
Sabel MS. Overview of benign breast diseases. UpToDate. 2021. Accessed at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-benign-breast-diseases on August 10, 2021.
Sabel MS, Collins LC. Atypia and lobular carcinoma in situ: High-risk lesions of the breast. UpToDate. 2021. Accessed at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/atypia-and-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-high-risk-lesions-of-the-breast on August 10, 2021.
Willett WC, Tamimi R, Hankinson SE, Hazra A, Eliassen AH, Colditz GA. Chapter 18: Nongenetic factors in the causation of breast cancer. In: Harris JR, Lippman, Morrow M, Osbourne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.
Last Revised: December 16, 2021
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